Toluene substitute

Toluene, also known as "methylbenzene", "phenylmethane" or "toluol" is a clear, colorless liquid with a sweet smell. It dissolves other substances easily and evaporates quickly into the air. Toluene is also highly flammable and may catch on fire if exposed to heat or flames.

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Toluene is used in many products and workplaces, from printing operations, manufacturing facilities and construction sites to nail salons. Employers must also provide workers with training and information about the hazards of the products used and how to work with them safely.

Exposure can also affect color vision and hearing.

Symptoms may get worse as toluene levels in the air or skin contact increases. Over time, exposure to high concentrations, day after day, may lead to tiredness and slow reaction, difficulty sleeping, numbness in the hands or feet, or female reproductive system damage and pregnancy loss.

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If swallowed, toluene can cause liver and kidney damage. Many people can smell toluene at levels below established limits. But, if you can smell it, then it is getting into the air.

Do not count on odor as your warning. You may "get used to the smell olfactory fatigue " and no longer be able to smell the toluene. Employers are required to keep worker exposures at or below the PEL. For toluene, this means keeping worker exposure at or below the PEL of parts per million ppm of toluene for an 8-hour work shift 29 CFR Employers must use engineering controls and work practices first to reduce toluene exposures.

If those controls are not effective then personal protective equipment may be required. Employers must provide workers with training and information on using controls, handling products safely, and required protective equipment. Workers have the right to a safe and healthy workplace. It's confidential.

We can help. For information on workers' rights, employer responsibilities, or how to file a complaint, visit OSHA's Workers page at www. Employers can contact OSHA's free and confidential Consultation Program to help determine if there are hazards including toluene in their workplace. On-site consultations do not result in citations or penalties. For more information, visit OSHA's website at www. We will keep your information confidential. We are here to help you.

Twenty-seven states operate their own occupational safety and health programs approved by OSHA. States enforce similar standards that may have different or additional requirements. A list of state plans is available at www. This InfoSheet is not a standard or regulation, and it creates no new legal obligations. It contains recommendations as well as descriptions of mandatory safety and health standards.

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The recommendations are advisory in nature, informational in content, and are intended to assist employers in providing a safe and healthful workplace. In addition, the Act's General Duty Clause, Section 5 a 1requires employers to provide their employees with a workplace free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm.

Department of Labor. SDSs have a standardized 16 section format with specific information required in each section. The Department of Labor does not endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or contents, nor does it vouch for the accuracy or accessibility of the information contained on the destination server. The Department of Labor also cannot authorize the use of copyrighted materials contained in linked Web sites.This page discusses the problems which arise if you try to write the mechanism for an electrophilic substitution reaction into a benzene ring which already has something else attached to it.

toluene substitute

Whereabouts in the ring does the substitution happen? Does this make a difference to how you draw the mechanisms? This page assumes that you can already write the mechanisms for substitution into a simple benzene ring. If you can't, go back to the electrophilic substitution menu and read about the reactions you are interested in before you tackle this page. If you substitute a nitro group, -NO 2into the benzene ring in methylbenzene, you could possibly get any of the following products:.

The carbon with the methyl group attached is thought of as the number 1 carbon, and the ring is then numbered around from 1 to 6. You number in a direction in this case, clockwise which produces the smaller number in the name - hence 2-nitromethylbenzene rather than 6-nitromethylbenzene. In the case of methylbenzene, whatever you attach to the ring, you always get a mixture consisting mainly of the 2- and 4- isomers.

The methyl group is said to be 2,4-directing, in the sense that it seems to "push" incoming groups into those positions. Some other groups which might already be on the ring for example, the -NO 2 group in nitrobenzene "push" incoming groups into the 3- position. We'll have a quick look at this later on this page. At A' level, you will not be expected to explain why different groups have different directing effects.

It is possible, however, that you may be expected to remember the directing effect of one or two groups. It is very difficult to tell this from the syllabuses, most of which don't specifically exclude the possibility - but that could simply be an oversight. Your best option is to check past exam papers, or any support material published by your Exam Board. If in doubt, contact them and find out exactly what they expect.

toluene substitute

In an exam, then, you may have to remember the directing effect of a particular group, or more likely you will be told it. Your problem may then be to write the mechanism. This assumes that you are already familiar with the nitration of benzene. If you aren't, read about it before you go any further. Reacting methylbenzene with a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acids gives both 2-nitromethylbenzene and 4-nitromethylbenzene.

The mechanism is exactly the same as the nitration of benzene. You just have to be careful about the way that you draw the structure of the intermediate ion. This just shows the first step of the electrophilic substitution reaction. Notice that the partial delocalisation in the intermediate ion covers all the carbon atoms in the ring except for the one that the -NO 2 group gets attached to.

That is the only point of interest in this example - everything else is just the same as with the nitration of benzene.

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The hydrogen atom is then removed by an HSO 4 - ion - exactly as in the benzene case.Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid which becomes a vapor when exposed to air at room temperature.

Toluene vapor has a sharp or sweet odor, which is a sign of exposure. Toluene is typically used in a mixture with other solvents and chemicals such as paint pigments. Products that may contain toluene-such as paint, metal cleaners and adhesives-are used in many industries and can be found in many workplaces.

Gasoline and other fuels also contain toluene. Workers using toluene-containing paints, varnishes, shellac, nail polish, glues and adhesives, rust preventives or printing inks may be exposed to toluene. Workers can be exposed to toluene by breathing it in, getting it on their skin, getting it splashed into their eyes, or swallowing it.

These types of exposures may make workers sick immediately or cause effects over time. Toluene exposures have been studied in nail salons and printing establishments, auto repairand construction activities. Without proper ventilation and safety precautionstoluene can cause irritated eyes, nose, and throat; dry or cracked skin; headache, dizziness, feeling of being drunk, confusion and anxiety. Symptoms worsen as exposure increases, and long term exposure may lead to tiredness, slow reaction, difficulty sleeping, numbness in the hands or feet, or female reproductive system damage and pregnancy loss.

If swallowed, toluene can cause liver and kidney damage.

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More information about the health hazards of toluene is available here. OSHA's exposure limits for toluene have been set to prevent effects of long term exposure on the nervous system, however, workers frequently experience symptoms of toluene exposure in activities where exposures are lower than OSHA's present exposure limits. Learn more about exposure limits here. Toluene is also flammable, and its vapors can be ignited by flames, sparks or other ignition sources.

Provides information on training workers who use materials containing toluene about the health and safety hazards of toluene, how to recognize exposure to toluene, and the protective measures that apply to the use of toluene in the specific work area.

Safety and Health Topics Toluene.

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Overview Toluene is a clear, colorless liquid which becomes a vapor when exposed to air at room temperature. Occupational Exposure Limits Provides the occupational exposure limits for toluene. Risk Assessment Provides assistance and information about the management of occupational exposures to toluene.

Additional Resources Provides links and references to additional resources related to exposures to toluene.Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon chemical that is colorless and not soluble in water.

toluene substitute

It is primarily used to dissolve adhesives and in clean-up applications. Toluene is also used as a finishing clean-up solution for industrial coating applications that include woodcontainers, automotive products, machinery manufacturingand more.

Since toluene is often used as a highly dangerous recreational inhalant, there is increased legislation that is limiting its availability and increasing the need for toluene replacement alternatives.

Toluene is a chemical solution that is used throughout numerous industries. Overexposure to toluene over an extended period can create adverse health effects that can last a lifetime. Additionally, high concentrations of toluene, usually from use in a confined space or unventilated area, can cause loss of consciousness, respiratory depression, and death. Long term and repeated workplace exposure to toluene affect the central nervous system. Some of the additional effects of toluene include the following:.

Toluene substitutes provide a less dangerous alternative to toluene and other similar chemicals. Alternatives to toluene also provide a safe atmosphere for those that utilize these types of chemicals on a regular basis.

Additionally, toluene replacements are safer for the environment since it maintains a slow evaporation rate, is biodegradable, recyclable, and contains no environmentally hazardous ingredients. Since toluene can be a highly hazardous chemical, certain protection methods should be established and maintained before handling or being exposed to toluene for a period of time.

Some of the best methods for protecting against toluene exposure include:.

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This product provides all the benefits of toluene without all of the negative side effects. When working with this toluene replacement the health and environmental concerns associated with toluene can be eliminated.

Our toluene replacement products have been shown to last times longer than comparable solvent products. This non-HAP solvent does not provide any toxic fumes and is completely safe against the skin.

Some of the additional applications where toluene can be replaced include:. Polychem 36 also provides a longer life cycle and does not necessitate any type of HAZMAT removal fees when used and filtered properly. Additional eco-benefits of toluene replacement, include:.It is a colorless, water -insoluble liquid with the smell associated with paint thinners.

Toluene is predominantly used as an industrial feedstock and a solvent. As the solvent in some types of paint thinnerpermanent markerscontact cement and certain types of glue, toluene is sometimes used as a recreational inhalant [7] and has the potential of causing severe neurological harm. Toluene reacts as a normal aromatic hydrocarbon in electrophilic aromatic substitution. It undergoes sulfonation to give p -toluenesulfonic acidand chlorination by Cl 2 in the presence of FeCl 3 to give ortho and para isomers of chlorotoluene.

Importantly, the methyl side chain in toluene is susceptible to oxidation. The methyl group undergoes halogenation under free radical conditions. The same conversion can be effected with elemental bromine in the presence of UV light or even sunlight. Toluene may also be brominated by treating it with HBr and H 2 O 2 in the presence of light. The methyl group in toluene undergoes deprotonation only with very strong bases, its pK a is estimated to be approximately The reaction requires a high pressure of hydrogen and a catalyst.

Toluene occurs naturally at low levels in crude oil and is a byproduct in the production of gasoline by a catalytic reformer or ethylene cracker. It is also a byproduct of the production of coke from coal. Final separation and purification is done by any of the distillation or solvent extraction processes used for BTX aromatics benzene, toluene, and xylene isomers.

Toluene is inexpensively produced industrially. In principle it could be prepared by a variety of methods. Such reactions are complicated by polymethylation because toluene is more susceptible to alkylation than is benzene.

toluene substitute

Toluene is mainly used as a precursor to benzene via hydrodealkylation :. The second ranked application involves its disproportionation to a mixture of benzene and xylene. Nitration of toluene give mono- di- and trinitrotoluene, all of which are widely used. Dinitrotoluene is the precursor to toluene diisocyanatewhich used in the manufacture of polyurethane foam. Trinitrotoluene is the explosive typically abbreviated TNT.

Benzoic acid and benzaldehyde are produced commercially by partial oxidation of toluene with oxygen.And at first glance you do see randomness. But after reading the book a while I started seeing a pattern. I did extensive research to prove my theory. After hours of mathematical modeling I conclusively proved that there is a set of numbers in this book that it not only a pattern, but is outright sequential.

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Guidelines Sign in to comment Showing 0 commentsSort by: Newest Oldest There was a problem loading comments right now. If you look closely, you will note that every tenth digit or so is just a repeat of the last digit and every hundredth or so is a just the same digit repeated three times.

A sampling of this "work":Page 36 - Line 6 - 15 characters in should be 5, not 4. Page 99 - Line 18 - first three characters should be "453" not "345". Page 145 - Line 2 - 7th and 19th characters transposed.So what does your business need to do to start getting reviews on these sites. Claim and update your listings on them, for starters, and promote your listing directly on your website so customers know where to go to send their reviews.

So, considering all of the above mentioned sites that you can get customers to share their opinions on, what can you do to encourage them to create these reviews. This same strategy can be applied to online reviews as well. Offer your customers incentives for creating reviews. Local search directories allow you to share coupons and discounts on their sites.

Special coding on Facebook can allow you to share special offers for fans only. You can offer a giveaway for people who send in a video review. Last, but not least, there are likely a ton of customer reviews that are written about your company on other sites, such as personal blogs, that are unsolicited. Setup daily notifications via email on Google Alerts and Social Mention for a variety of applicable terms in order to keep track of brand mentions, including your name, business name, brand, and specific product names plus the word review.

Use these alerts to find out about any reviews and ask the people who have mentioned your brand if you can feature their comment or story on your testimonials page. Usually people are happy to oblige, especially in exchange for a link from your site.

So now that you have collected all of these great reviews, you will want to add them to one page on your website that you can direct potential customers to so they can see what great things you have done for others. Be sure to credit the review to the site it came from (such as linking to your Yelp profile), as this may encourage people to continue on to your profile on that site and add more reviews.

Also, if necessary, get permission from the person who wrote the review and confirm that it is alright if you add their review to your main site.

Whenever you come across a negative review about your business, it is essential that you respond to it.

Non-Hazardous Alternatives for Toluene

How do you get your customers to write or record reviews about your company. What other tips would you give to businesses looking to increase their testimonials page for more credibility. About the Author: Kristi Hines is a freelance writer, blogger, and social media enthusiast. Her blog Kikolani focuses on blog marketing, including social networking strategies and blogging tips. Customer engagement requires two components: behavioral analytics and engagement automation.

Sign in with Google to get early access to our new free Google Analytics app Share on TwitterShare on FacebookEmail this content. Get the free iPhone appMeasure people, not pageviews. I get email surveys all the time that offer a discount or chance to enter a contest in exchange for a review.

Most of the travel booking sites send you an email after your purchase to review the site and after you return from your trip to review the airline, hotel, etc. In the age of social media the voice of the customer is more and more important each day, so being able to communicate with your clients and having into account their words is for sure the way to go.

Good service and easy access to write reviews is a good way. A great round up. A great way to get them is send a follow up email after an ecommerce customer has received there order.

Amazon sends me one when I buy. Your list has given me a few good ideas. I think some people are just naturally more comfortable writing a testimonial on one platform over another, so giving them the option to do so everywhere you can and then compiling it all later will get you the most response. Good tips, especially the YouTube one. For some potential customers, these may carry more weight. My company (Tortuga Backpacks) compiles quotes from 3rd party reviews on a Reviews page with links back to the original article.